Inclusion Expert were asked to carry out a review of a secondary school in the North West of England. Their exclusion figures were high and this concerned them greatly. Daniel Sobel reflects on his time with the school:
It was music to my ears when the Deputy Head Teacher outlined her vision going forward. In a nutshell she wanted to use any time out of class for students productively:
- Enabling pupils to reflect on their choices and help them identify personal strategies to succeed in lessons;
- Having work set and marked by teachers (therefore maintaining the important link for pupils with their curriculum); and
- Offering follow-up support from pastoral staff when pupils return to lessons.
This included getting rid of the use of the school’s ‘Isolation Room’ in the school. She agreed with me that the benefits of this sort of arrangement are minimal for students.
What was additional music to my ears was listening to the Deputy Head talk about the quality of teaching in lessons and how important this is in relation to helping vulnerable students succeed – and reduce the likelihood of them needing to spend time out of class anyway. She rightly wanted a situation where out of class intervention was not a plaster for ineffective teaching.
So, her vision for the school comprised of two key elements:
- Making sure that teaching is as good as it can be to help all students do well; and
- If any students do require time out of class it is used purposefully.
Our approach to leading behaviour reviews is largely a supportive and positive one because we recognise the demands on teaches and school leaders.
Here’s what we focus on when leading Behaviour Reviews:
- What the school is currently doing well;
- Whole school developments, what is happening in classrooms and the extent to which individual pupils’ needs, interests, aspirations and motivations are accommodated; and
- Devising with the school simple support plans and ways to record the impact of interventions.
Some tips on what to look for
What follows cannot be a definitive list as every school is unique and faces a range of challenges. However, after doing lots of these there are some fairly common themes.
There is often a pattern of behaviour for cohorts and individual pupils. It is a good idea to look for it. Are there times during the week or the day when negative behaviour incidents peak? Are there particular subjects where the difficulties are greatest? Do some teachers find a cohort easier than other teachers?
If we can spot this we can learn and share. A little while ago I was in a secondary school speaking to a large number of ‘challenging’ students. I asked them what their favourite subject was. Remarkably most of them said Geography. When I explored further it was the teacher they were talking about. They said he was respectful towards them and never shouted. Incidentally, his results were pretty good too – dispelling the myth that teachers have to be harsh to get the best results.
This leads nicely to the next question:
What are the attitudes of the teachers like towards pupils who face the greatest challenges?
How do they speak to the pupils? What is their tone? Do they aim to create a positive climate in their classroom? Is the starting point developing and maintaining good relationships with the pupils? The Geography teacher cited above was brilliant at this!
Positive language and tone is so important. I have heard different teachers asking students to remove a cap or take their coat off and get dramatically different results. They use the same words but it is the manner in which it is said and how it is received that is vital. I have seen a simple request escalate into a major incident in seconds because of a negative tone of voice.
Do staff in the school really listen to students about the roots and triggers for their behaviours?
Working on the premise that all behaviour is a form of communication it is important to find out more about it. Crudely, students misbehave for two broad reasons: to get away from something or seek attention. If we can find out more about this the easier it is to help them devise their own coping strategies. It is impossible here to cover all reasons and strategies but take the pupil who is finding the work difficult. Their esteem may be rock bottom and they might feel highly embarrassed about being seen to be not getting it in front of their peers. They will do all they can to get away from the classroom. So, the thing to do here is pitch the learning activity to match their need and level of ability. Another pupil who might have attachment difficulties, and finds the world a frightening and unpredictable place, may try to exert some control of a situation. In this case try to provide some choices for them – not whether to complete the task or not but perhaps where they sit or how they complete the task. For some pupils being offered to write with a pen or a pencil can make a huge difference!
Are there some environmental or organisational aspects that are contributing towards negative behaviour?
How do pupils move around the school? Are there some ‘road blocks’ in places? Are there sight-lines in all social spaces? How ‘kind’ is the environment for pupils who may suffer from ‘sensory overload’ at times due to lots of noise? Can some pupils leave a lesson a few minutes early in order to avoid situations to help them? I have found a good way of identifying these issues is to take a walk around the school with a pupil and provide them with a rating score system or similar.
Are there plans for the most challenging pupils that set small steps of success for them?
Simple targets and regular rewards can be highly effective especially if they are shared widely and all staff that support the pupil know what the plan is. This is an opportunity to find out from the pupil what their motivations and interests are. Rewards do not need to be big or expensive. I know a pupil who was really keen on his local football team. His reward was not a match day ticket but 10 minutes each day talking with a school administrator (who he had a great relationship with!) who also followed the team.
Is communication with the families of the most challenging pupils positive?
In my experience the last thing families need is a daily call to say their child has been misbehaving. They need to be kept informed of course but try to share the successes rather than the failures. This builds a positive relationship and engages families in the process. Families want to help and they can be key to success.
When pupils have been excluded is there a reduced timetable in place and a clear re-integration plan?
Success is often greatest when pupils can return (even for a single lesson) and experience success. This can breed further success as it can motivate the pupil, the staff and the pupils’ family. Lessons can be built up over time. Listening to the pupil is key here to involve them in the return-to-school process. I wonder if they would like to attend a Geography lesson?
Below is a suggested framework to guide your conversations with pupils, staff, leaders and parents. We cover all aspects of a school that influence the behaviour of pupils and create the right ‘conditions for learning’.
|Aspect||Sorts of questions …|
|Whole School Approach||
|Staff Professional Development||
What do we know about schools where they get it right more often than they get it wrong?
- First and foremost they ‘get’ troubled young people. They appreciate that such young people “are distinguished by their regrettable ability to elicit from others exactly the opposite of what they really need”. (L Tobin)
- They work hard at working WITH parents and families!
- Teachers reinforce consequences for the things young people get right as well as when they get it wrong. They help young people understand their responsibilities, make the right decisions and not blame others.
- Their feedback is specific (e.g. you made the right choice there by walking away from that situation, I like the way you asked me for help with that first task in the lesson earlier, etc.). This also helps decision making.
- Staff don’t let troubled young people push their buttons – they maintain control and don’t ‘lose it’. They maintain professional responses rather than emotional ones.
- Teachers use ‘time in’ rather than ‘time out’. Banishing young people may only compound any sense of worthlessness. Imagine how being sent away might affect someone who has already been rejected and abandoned numerous times in their life. The message of keeping them close is that whilst their action is unacceptable they are not.
- During a crisis time staff remind them of when things went well to give them a broader perspective of the situation.
- Staff help young people express their emotions so they don’t have to rely on negative ‘acting out’ behaviour.
- Staff carefully watch and listen to the young people. By doing this schools can predict ‘flash points’ and prevent them.
- Young people are prepared for change and transitions. This reduces stress and anxiety.
- Lessons are suitably differentiated so that learning is matched to needs, interests and aspirations.
- Teachers provide choices to young people. This is not of course whether to complete the task or not but to offer a choice of tasks or ways of doing it.
- Teachers develop and use peer support networks. This benefits all young people with regard to personal development.
- Above all, schools that are successful with the most troubled young people are great at building relationships with them. Students are treated respectfully and are championed.